THE EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF PRIVATE MILITARY SECURITY COMPANIES (PMSC) BY THE UNITED STATES IN IRAQ
Volume 1 Issue 2 June 2018 International Journal of Economics Management and Social Science (IJEMSS)
The shift of security paradigm post-cold war era has made the concept of security more complex, regarding the actor and its scope. The security dynamic trigger the emergence of new non-state actors in the security field. Private Military Security Companies (PMSC) is one of a non-state actors that provides security services. The United States as a developed country makes use of this service not only during wartime but also on other certain condition. The choice of using PMSC services is considered to have greater efficiency than the use of state military.How efficient can the United States get by hiring the PMSC? Based on the analysis, this paper argues that the US efficiency by hiring the PMSC is quite high because of the ability of the US to see the conditions, taking into account further and minimize the impact that would come. This paper will outline through three components: international security governance, the efficient use of PMSC services, and the consideration more about the impact of the use of PMSC services.
Bures, Oldrich. Private Military Companies: A Second Best Peacekeeping Option? International Peacekeeping (International Peacekeeping) 12, no. 4 (2005).
Cha, Victoria D. Globalization and the Study of International Security. Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 3 (Mei 2000): 391-403.
Chesterman , Simon, and Chia Lehnardt . From Mercenaries to Market: e Rise and Regulation of Private Military Companies (Introduction). New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers (New York University School of Law ), July 2007.
CNN Indonesia. Tentara Blackwater Bersalah Bunuh Warga Irak [Blackwater guilty of killing Iraqis]. Oktober 23, 2014. http://www.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/20141023103550-134-7583/tentara-blackwater-bersalah-bunuh-warga-irak/ (accessed Juni 14, 2017).
Council on Foreign Relation. Trends in U.S. Military Spending. Juli 15, 2014. https://www.cfr.org/report/trends-us-military-spending (accessed Juni 7, 2017).
Dunigan, Molly. US Control of Contractors in Iraq is Vital. February 1, 2012. https://www.globalpolicy.org/pmscs/51242-us-control-of-contractors-in-iraq-is-vital.html?itemid=id#1455 (accessed Juli 7, 2017).
Ettinger , Aaron. Neoliberalism and the Rise of the Private Military Industry. International Journal (Sage Publications, Ltd. on behalf of the Canadian International Council ) 66, no. 3 (2011 ): 743-764 .
Ghazaly, Mirza Akmarizal. Penggunaan Private Military Company oleh Negara [Private Military Company Use by Country]. Universitas Indonesia, 2014.
Kaya, S. Yelda. Private contractors in war from the 1990s to the present. In Fighting for a Living, by A Comparative Study of Military Labour 1500-2000, edited by Erik-Jan Zürcher . Amsterdam University Press, 2013.
Krahmann, Elke. Security Governance and the Private Military Industry in Europe and North America. Conflict, Security & Development (Routledge/Taylor & Francis) 5, no. 2 (2005): 247-268.
Mahardi, Tegar Punang. Analisa Penggunaan Private Military Companies (PMCs) Oleh Amerika Serikat Pada Studi Kasus Invasi Amerika Serikat ke Irak Tahun 2009- 2011 [Analysis of Private Military Companies (PMCs) By the US In the Case Study of the US Invasion to Iraq 2009- 2011]. (Universitas Brawijaya ) 2014.
Nuechterlein, Donald E. Economic Downturn Impacts U.S. Foreign Policy. November 2009. http://donaldnuechterlein.com/2009/2009.11.economy.html (accessed Juli 7, 2017).
Putri, Mifta Giyanti. Peran Private Military Company (PMC) Blackwater dalam Invasi Amerika Serikat ke Irak Tahun 2006 - 2011 [Blackwater's Private Military Company (PMC) role in US-led invasion of Iraq 2006 - 2011]. (IISIP Jakarta) Februari 2017.
Singer, P. W. Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry and Its Ramifications for International Security. International Security (The MIT Press ) 26, no. 3 (2002): 186-220 .
Soesilowati, Sartika. Privatisasi Keamanan dan Tentara Bayaran [Privatization of Security and Mercenaries]. Kuliah Konflik Global dan Keamanan Manusiawi, Dosen Hubungan Internasional , Universitas Airlangga, 2017.
Sukarwo, Wirawan. Tentara Bayaran AS di Iraq [The US mercenaries in Iraq]. Gagas Media, 2009.
The Atlantic. America's Addiction to Mercenaries. Agustus 12, 2016. https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/08/iraq-afghanistan-contractor-pentagon-obama/495731/ (accessed Juli 7, 2017).
US Government Spending Web. Recent Defense Spending. n.d. http://www.usgovernmentspending.com/defense_spending (accessed Juli 7, 2017).
Zudma, Farras Abdu. Kebijakan Amerika Serikat dalam Mengirim PMC (Private Military Company) ke Irak tahun 2011 [US Policy on Sending PMC (Private Military Company) to Iraq in 2011]. Jom Fisip (Fisip Universitas Riau) 4, no. 2 (Oktober 2017).
Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Economics Management and Social Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.